Preparation Ibrahim al-Mashhadani
Under this heading, issued by the "angel House of Arts and Letters and publishing" a book authored by Fouad Qassem, Prince, had already issued his ten books of large size are looking at the economy in general and oil in particular, and most of them revolve around oil policy in Iraq.
The book consists of an introduction and four chapters In his introduction to the writer talked about the shape of the economy and Atherha industry in Iraq and sees that he can not for the industry in Iraq to grow and evolve according to an open economy system following the privatization and opening up of the economy, which was adopted by a number of Iraqi economists under the so-called new liberalism or globalization economic, or what some call unrestrained capitalism or unruly, or what is called in some literature savage capitalism. The writer adds (he did not find in the previous readings and follow-ups and one country in the developing world have adopted the so-called open economy and managed through the development of its economy and Development but it was quite the opposite in all developing countries, which goes in this direction since the seventies of the last century to the present day, whether it was on track this voluntarily to the conviction of this economic approach or forced under pressure from the United States directly or through international institutions that represent pressure machine such as the IMF or the World Bank or the World Trade Organization and under various names are all located under what is known as -balaslahat-economic)
And out writer in his introduction conclusion about the new role of liberalism in the industrialized countries is reflected in the unfair wealth divide has increased the poor poorer and the rich richer and ended "welfare state" stage was not the legendary increases in retail and institutional fortunes as a result of the development of economic sectors such as industry, agriculture, but through speculation and investment in Financial institutions such as banks, insurance companies, reinsurance and various stock exchanges, financial and monetary markets.
As for China, a successful example when talking about an open economy, it has taken its own path as it took advantage of economic openness in a rational and objective for the benefit of
Contrary to the expectations of the people capitalist countries which say that the opening up of China will open a wide market for help in the expansion of the capitalist economy.
World War II and the rise of the dollar
In the first chapter the author speaks about the political conditions experienced by Europe and the rise of the Nazi regime Hitler as a rising power and the growing conflict between the European countries for the acquisition of the global markets and the seizure of raw materials, especially energy required by the capitalist industry, which led to the outbreak of World War II and this is The main reason for the attack on the Soviet Union by Albert Sabre Certificate Minister armament and military production was Hitler's Germany and repeats in private circles that he wants control of the Caucasus oil and open the gate to control the world.
Among the key findings of the Second World War out of the United States as the biggest gainer it is far from direct military operations did not suffer as a result of the war any of the infrastructure or industrial laboratories or the agricultural sector, which made it the main source of investment in allied countries with especially the Marshall Plan. The second outcome of the war is represented in the spread of the ideas of socialism and communism not only in Europe but spread out in different continents and came out of the Soviet Union, the second superpower is that the economy was very weak because of the hostilities the most extensive and destructive in that war, unlike the US economy, and this is why the United States of America to develop its relations with the countries of the world, especially Saudi Arabia, where oil is the main source of energy, so the US President Roosevelt initiated the conclusion of oil economic agreement with the King of Saudi Arabia, which has irritated Britain, which tried to push the United States and allies to fight the Soviet Union, but that Roosevelt refused, especially since the economy this offer America was more healthy what made the United States the largest creditor of industrialized nations, which led to the value of some currencies are not worth the paper its printed price, the most powerful country militarily, especially as they have a nuclear weapon. Here the dollar and appeared as the strongest currency on the ground, most based on the gold exchange offset the deterioration in all countries, in addition to the inflation in the money-losing state was high.
All these things led to the need for an economic system that includes the whole world, or at
At least the capitalist world, and that includes the completion of this project is able to solve the economic problems and social problems arising therefrom and thus appeared (the Bretton Woods system)
Bretton Woods Conference
In the second chapter sailing writer in the circumstances and factors that led to the emergence of the Bretton Woods Agreement, which is the need for a global monetary system to address emerging economic imbalances of the war of the collapse of the currencies of various losers in war countries and the high levels of inflation in their economies, which called for the convening of the Conference establish this system was in 1944. It is natural that the United States has tried through this conference the full domination of the outcome of the conference to put its currency substitute for gold in world trade, but that the balance of power within the Congress did not allow the United States to impose its hegemony as they aspire. In this conference was representing Britain Economic John Maynard Keynes world, which are attributed to him Keynesian economic school was Keynes represents the point of view of the European while the United States represents Harry Dexter White and like these two worlds ends of the US European conflict, but the result was reaching the intermediate solutions that satisfy all parties. Everyone was at the Bretton Woods conference agreed on the need to avoid chaos and monetary inflation that occurred before and during the Second World War, so it was necessary to reach a reasonable solution to avoid the collapse of the value of money and time, the United States wants to ensure the possibility of the Allies winning both in war or losers to pay its debts, whether debt or war reconstruction actual Bakiemha private capitalist governments and policy during the thirties of the last century, is working to reduce the value of its currency compared to other currencies.
The design of the Bretton Woods monetary system and its consequences
The freedom of trade between the countries have different national currencies and need an important conduit for the transfer of investment and trade and payments and to ensure that paid real value and this medium Palmatad money so it was important for the Bretton Woods conference that emphasizes the freedom of conversion between national currencies with ensuring there are no changes in the conversion rates except in very narrow limits, and finally the conference concluded that the only currency that can meet the needs of global trade is the US dollar as the force
Dollar derived from the installation of his relationship with gold as select price Alounsh ounce 1.31 g amount equal to $ 35 The United States pledged at this conference as the largest holder of gold, that it was ready to compensate for any amount of currency to the dollar and the price above, and thus became the cash reserves of the world is the dollar which means that each state will prove its currency against the dollar as long as the dollar equivalent in gold Thabta.olgerd assistance in the application of the Bretton Woods system, the Conference decided to set up two world wars are the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank has also been the basis of the General Agreement on customs tariffs and trade mode (Cat).
Dollar, gold and oil
In the third chapter the author for gold, which is considered one of the important bases in the world economy and the global monetary policy and gold is one of the heavy elements because of the quality density of 0.19 g / cm 3 also features unique characteristics made of precious metals Perhaps the most important of which he is more resistant mineral chemical reactions and therefore speaks the least susceptible to rust, corrosion and has a total produced in 2013 (2770) metric tons.
With regard to the purchasing power of the dollar as the base currency that determines foreign currency values. Foreign currencies has decreased over the years and especially during World War II and the devaluation of the dollar because of inflation in the United States is reflected in the increase in other currencies or Anakassan.ovi this chapter the author talked about the critical situation in Iraq during the period of the nineties and the economic blockade, indicating that the Iraqi economy mainly depends on the source of the oil revenues, where turning 90 percent of the total budget.
Between the author and the monetary policy followed by the central bank may have helped to reduce inflation and reach a reasonable percentage annual increase of about 10 percent and then to less than 6 percent with relative stability in the price of the dinar is about 1200 dinars to the dollar. It took the author to follow the central bank's policy over the period after 2003 in progress. Conclusion that the central bank was successful in inflation control and install the rate of the dinar against the dollar, intervention and control them when needed but it was not effective in controlling the unemployment rate by controlling the pumping cash in administration commercial banks for the purposes of development.
The emergence of OPEC to exist
The oil companies are controlling the production and pricing of the Standard Oil Company Of New Jersey (Exxon) on 08.09.1960 decided to reduce the list prices by 14 cents a barrel, followed by the oil companies in this reduction Within hours of this reduction by the Saudi oil minister Abdullah Tariki known hostility to oil companies to conduct deliberations with Venezuela's oil minister, and after a month of low oil prices, companies olive branch raised and raised the prices of 2-4 cents a barrel, but the move was the most assertive is taken in Baghdad after the glorious July revolution at the invitation of Baghdad Having met representatives of major oil-producing countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Venezuela and Iran, in addition to Iraq and attended the Qatar as an observer and announced in 09/14/1960 formation of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to take over the defense of the oil prices and a system of production between Member States and after the formation of the organization entered production processes and prices in three stages called by the author shocks The trauma first was in 1971- 1973 if the price per barrel increased to 11.65 and took the OPEC decision to be a price of $ 23 a barrel at this stage was to change the Saudi oil minister to become Ahmed Zaki Yamani after Abdullah Tariki at the request of oil companies and pressure from Western governments, especially the United States and Britain. The second shock was after the Iranian revolution, which lasted about a year down the track Iran's oil production and prices rose on the track between 10-20 over the official list prices. The third shock was the price of oil is $ 34 advertised. At this stage Atakht several measures to increase energy efficiency using coal and gas, which led to some of its positions and expansions in nuclear uses oil losses in addition to all of that oil production from the North Sea and so OPEC lowered its prices to be $ 29 instead of $ 34 a barrel.
In the fourth quarter and the latter turned author to sail in another world, namely globalization of information presented in it and a description of the first of the steps in the fight in this world, presenting an overview Snowden scenario serious and the information leaked and forbidden and allowed information that can be leaked and the role of the judiciary in this area, particularly in the United States. It also provided a description of the stages of development of information and uses different technology and the most dangerous military uses, in addition to economic uses This chapter concludes by saying that the purpose of addressing this chapter to help the reader to take a preliminary look at the neo-liberal globalization. The rich information provided by the author in his book with 374 pages of heavy and information contained in the book, which makes it an indispensable source for gawkers monetary policy and the economics of oil.
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