Adnan al-Janabi *: Book of salvation of the Rentier State
By شبكة الاقتصاديين العراقيين IEN Editors هيئة التحرير
- Posted on 08/10/2016
It was a handbook "Rentier State and dictatorship" (1) 2013 had been hastily to alert to the seriousness of the consequences of the State
Rent in Iraq at the time. And I didn't have time for expansion of research on nature of Rentier State and manifestations in Iraq and ways to avoid risks. If interest in the reform of the political process and lame attempt to stop the collapse of Iraq toward chaos and Division in the first place is the preoccupation with time. Forcing rapid deployment timing, without updating various aspects of the topic.
Despite all attempts by some political leaders in the Government to return true, the Rentier State cancer, concomitant per capita dictatorship, was beyond the possibility of cure, which led to the collapse of the 10th of June 2014 fall of Mosul and accompanied him and followed him from further fragmentation and decline towards chaos and dangers of compartmentalization.
Iraq since 1958 coup was suffering from symptoms of Rentier State known as after starting the rental income is increasing due to increases in the Government's share of oil sales, which experienced a boom after modifying the 1951 oil agreements.
And if we reviewed governance systems and their characteristics, we find that authoritarianism and dictatorship singles were prevailing and growing qualities of successive regimes after 1958. As we find that depth of dictatorship and corruption, rising simultaneously with oil's share of national income increases, relative and absolute.
Was Hazem El-Beblawi, before him and after him who founded and considered and analysed the Rentier State recipes, State has four person rentier:
1. to be rental income (of oil) is prevailing in the economy, income and a larger proportion of the national income, and therefore of the Government budget.
2. do not constitute local manpower in oil production only a small proportion of the total working force in the country.
3. income from oil revenue comes from outside the country, from the sale of oil to other countries, which means that income does not require local economic development to achieve higher incomes for the Government.
4. in all States rent Government is receiving rental income.
Someone has been all researchers in the field of developing oil rentier States tendency of dictatorship and tyranny in Government because of the Governor's ability to harness large numbers of repressive organs for his service.
As these countries rulers tend to neglect other productive activities in the economy, such as industry, agriculture, tourism, Commerce and services, because enough oil resources. And do not need in their continued provision only parasitic strata of mercenaries and corrupt walmatashin Government and the Governor. Otherwise producers and middle-class intellectuals and artists, either Governor or matashin against their pay system to kill or prisons or immigration, sometimes reluctantly tolerated.
The situation of Iraq since the American invasion in 2003, they are worse than other rental States dependence of economy on oil revenue and the adoption of the Government budget on oil revenues. It has accompanied the occupation end state institutions was decrepit anyway, destruction and looting of State infrastructure and economy.
And may cause cancellation of State institutions and the law of de-Baathification, some weird laws about the nature of the Iraqi people and cultures, to the emergence of new diseases, aggravation of chronic diseases.
This has resulted in the abolition of the army, and other security devices, depriving the community of the safety valve only to provide security for citizens.
Whatever our previous system practices using the army to suppress opponents, important parts of the Iraqi people like the Kurds, those devices they contain elements of a professional able to adjust security and protect people's lives and property and public property of chaos and looting. Chaos resulted from the security solution to the emergence of organized crime and terrorism.
Iraqis will not forget and will not forget the whole world, burning public buildings and looted State funds under the gaze of Israeli tanks. And was it looted and vandalized until the Iraqi Museum and the Central Bank.
I have been looted and destroyed and burned public installations, the mainstay of Iraq's economy. And tens of thousands of skilled workers and engineers and technicians and left them without a livelihood. And give them to other State institutions make them an army of unemployed non-producers.
And we have an outbreak of disease in all State facilities is a lack of commitment, lack of interest, and then turn to bribery and corruption. Valley of the demobilization of the army and security services without retirement or income, to shift hundreds of thousands of professionals trained to carry weapons and fighting styles, to organized crime and resistance, then terrorism under different labels.
Meanwhile, industry and agriculture were ignored and open the door to the anarchic import no ability of domestic producers to compete with him in this mess of import. And turning the countryside of food product and an economic supporter of cities, an incubator for terrorism and a haven for organized crime and vandalism.
Successive Governments have tried, from the Governing Council and the interim Government and the Transitional Government to the Government of Maliki's second mandate, doing work for some State institutions the prosthesis.
It was the boldest and most of these attempts by the interim Government led by Iyad Allawi. It has started to re-mod and form the nucleus of a professional army, and returning the intelligence, giving the salaries and pension rights for some military personnel and civilians.
However, these attempts are not complete for the short life of that Government, and that subsequent Governments continued the reforms begun by the interim Government.
In the meantime he was lost in the political process and write the Constitution in successive elections is a national project of the whole national identity. Rooftop communal identities emerged, and nationalism.
And Iraq (components) and not the parties and ideologies and programs. Communal and regional quotas became crucial differences are all posts and subscriptions. In the absence of national identity and political programs became ascent to local legislatures and not for Temperance and Iraqi national identity.
And Hagar or silence more moderate and national politicians, scientists, intellectuals and their artists. If no voice is louder than the sound of sectarianism and nationalism.
The de-Baathification became a sword of Damocles over all State institutions work before 2003. In the absence of recruitment became Service Board State services to unqualified parties from power.
And the "merge" basically to offer a range of other professionals in the military and security institutions. All this took place under the auspices of community leaders and cyberbullies decision centres, mostly lacking experience in the management of State Affairs.
Although the Kurdistan region was and remains an exception to the rule, it was the State's basic diseases rentier. They did not apply the debaathification, military and security forces did not wander (2 walasaish) and could override State funds looted. The leaders also have experience in politics and public administration for decades. But the concentration of power in the hands of families and limited categories became apparent.
Despite the flourishing economy based on virtual external investment, is suffering from serious structural weakness is not the emergence of local industries and agricultural production is appropriate and proportionate to the size of the virtual development.
This structural weakness, caused by foreign oil revenues will increase the vulnerability of developmental experience missing in the territory, the greater share of the oil from the local economy.
After this long posting (Rentier State and dictatorship) and what happened to Iraq, especially after the occupation of Mosul by the Islamic State, I feel compelled to return to the subject, and tries to put the solutions clearly and in more detail.
This cannot be completed unless a complete diagnosis.
So this author had divided into three chapters. I reviewed again and more clearly (symptoms of Rentier State). The analytical point of view we need to separate the most important diagnosis (symptoms of Rentier State in Iraq).
This provoked a second Act. Either ways of salvation of the State where it respect rentier class III (redemption of Rentier State) which examines the problematic address chronic diseases result from State and increasing rental since 1958, at a time when the country is fighting a bitter war with terrorism.
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(*) An Iraqi economist and member of the House of representatives
Source: Iraqi studies and Research Center website
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