That embrace the vision and strategy of the National transparent building, designed to get rid of the effects and disadvantages of the former regime, and put political and economic transparent approach fits with the needs of the country and the level of social, legal and regulatory development of society, and resources available. And activating the role of the state and give the real role of the sector's contribution Special to the revitalization of Alaguetsad.okzlk agree on most of the priorities to be implemented to remove the backwardness and AFESD economy and tackle poverty and unemployment and to provide
services and building and re-building infrastructure and introduction of modern technology and all that meets the aspirations of sustainable national development process, but consensus has not been achieved on the software needed to achieve these goals.
Today the government is facing D.haidar Abadi in economic and social policy obligations great and grave tasks. Iraqi people waiting impatiently from this government accomplished, first and foremost the economic system reform, improve the performance of financial and accounting and monetary system through the federal budget, and to ensure the independence of the Central Bank to perform its functions, Capricorn and the trend towards activating the role and performance of the various Mussat State based on the principles of good governance. All of these and other reforms should focus on the overall national development process in which the economic and social dimensions of sustainable realized service.
Closely referred to in the title above, I try to broach the subject of discussion within the hubs, as follows:
1 General observations about the current Iraqi economic situation.
2 reform of economic, financial and monetary system, and activating the role of the performance of state institutions in the comprehensive and sustainable national development process service, with economic and social dimensions.
First: General observations about the current Iraqi economic situation.
Three decades ago, and as is known, that the Iraqi economic policy towards sustainable national development and reduce some of the features of the day was marked by (without going into details), we quote, as follows: -
1 transparent lack of vision and strategy and / Ooaidulogih clear in sustainable economic and social development process.
-2 Iraq stay on his condition as an economy Rei, instead of turning to the producer of value-added economy, which requires a huge investment needs of the country, especially in the field of building and reconstruction of infrastructure building, which was destroyed, as a result of senseless wars of the dictatorial regime buried, and the occupation of Iraq, the unjust blockade imposed on the country and its people and prolonged for 13 years. And the introduction of modern technology, and the rehabilitation of the oil sector, and the promotion of productive sectors, particularly the industrial and agricultural sectors, productivity and service, and activating trade and put development plans serving Alchamlh.-
3 weak contribution of the productive sector of the economy in gross domestic product combination Alajamali.mma behind the structural imbalance in the composition of budgets, because of the great disparity in the distribution of budget expenditures ratio between spending and operational transformative year, which represents a rate of up to 70%, while public investment spending up to 30%.
-4 Terrible deterioration and worsening municipal services, health, education, water and electricity, and others.
5 expected the jobless rate during the current year to more than 25% of the labor force, and that the poverty line ratio may reach more than 30%, no more than (10) Mlaepn of Iraq's population of 34 million people, and for reasons that Altdhoralamna in the country as a result of control (Daash) and terrorist gangs on the number of cities and the displacement of thousands of families of them, and a decline in oil prices.
6 heightened social polarization, which led to the division of the community, and resulted in a big gap between rich and poor, causing great wealth concentrated in the hands of influential groups in the top of the pyramid partisan General and administrative.
It is controlled on the economic trends, and drawing up general trends.
7 that the partisan favoritism and weak financial controls, behind the administrative and economic corruption on most administrative and party levels. The concern and exaggerate the concept of privatization and the adoption of a market economy only policy, any (look at the cash economy, rather than the social economy), may encourage in this case more economic and administrative corruption.
8 predominance of the nature of consumer economic activity, the gradual decline in agricultural and industrial production of the economy and its impact on the working class and the peasantry, what leads to a decline in social forces supporting and contributing to the overall national development strategy.
9 weak contribution of the tax system in the general budget of the composition, because the resulting revenue is in
It continues to drop, because of the difficulty of collection and the spread of financial and administrative corruption in the apparatus. As tariff revenues are subject to the terms of the international financial and monetary organizations, including the International Trade Organization, which aims to remove tariff barriers over time.
10 weak and limited sophisticated manpower and resources with the necessary expertise in the production process. He also weak in infrastructure, hindered as well as other factors, the process of growth and economic development in Iraq.
11 that the contracts between the federal government and the province of Kurdistan of Iraq with foreign companies operating in Iraq lacked high transparency. The Kurdistan region contracts on the basis of production sharing contracts, and this pose a significant unfair Iraqi side. And according to some preliminary data, these contracts the companies mentioned granted for a long time has been more than 20 years, a high share of profits from oil extracted, and also to participate in the ownership, low cost of these companies, in exchange for the development of Iraqi oil fields.
12 weakness evident in the performance of financial legislation and in the development of the tax system and financial institutions, especially the banks, insurance companies, and pluralistic Mussat accounting systems in the public and private sectors, and the instability of the value of the Iraqi currency and its impact on inflation.
13 This policy led through three decades, except for the period (1973-1979), and then the Iran-Iraq war, which lasted eight years and cost hundreds of billions of Atarat.kma and waste of more than (500) five hundred billion US dollars of the Iraqi state resources since the occupation in 2003, and so far, did not invest
However, the amounts of which are very few in the national development.
14 existing economic policies to liberalize markets and prices contributed formats are incompatible with the economic development policies, with the absence and lack of accountability and transparency in the management and performance, which left a large and deep on the economic situation and social classes negative effects, and led to the emergence of disparity in access for the middle class. You can express them, the following: -
Growth category (parasitic) loyal to the successive governments, and constitute a social base, a force against the actual producers of wealth.
The emergence of other category (Maver) specializes in oil theft and selling through multiple channels, dealing with commissions and bribes with companies operating in Iraq, especially in the field of oil and foreign trade, trade in arms and drugs, among others.
The emergence of the bourgeoisie in favor of the wing segments of the parasite and bureaucratic Alcolmpradora, pushing the process of capital accumulation and on land ownership Aopaltjarh internal, rather than achieve the accumulation of capital-based production.
The flow of a growing proportion of national income to overseas through foreign trade, corruption and money laundering channels, and to the unfair distribution of national income. The country also kept an open market in the industrial, agricultural and services for foreign goods, without any controls. In addition to the decline in development and lower real incomes of the toiling masses. As the depth of weakness Allosth class local producers of industrial capitalism.
If you continue on that this development policy, may cause medium to reduce class size in Iraq in the future. Go where some categories of which gradually shift to (parasitic bureaucracy), and the other to (ultramafic), as the other ones and move gradually towards the category of poverty and pay Bafiqirh to below the poverty line.
Second, reform of economic, financial and monetary system, and activating the role of the performance of state institutions in the comprehensive and sustainable national development process of economic and social dimensions of service.
The current Iraqi economy according to data presented in the first pillar, I believe that need reforms and structural change, until it is activated and contribute to sustainable economic and social development process of economic and social dimensions.
On this occasion, we offer some modest proposals may perhaps contribute to the revitalization of the national economy and put it on the right track, and its positive impact on the middle class and the general composition of the Iraqi people, are as follows:
The background ideology adopted by successive governments and based on the former Iraqi ruler recommendations (Paul Bremer) after the occupation in 2003, and Bmazarh of some new economic liberals and in line with international financial organizations' policies (the IMF and the World Bank and the WTO), and the emphasis in the current government's economic program within topics such as: encouraging a shift towards the private sector, financial and administrative reforms of government institutions, all acknowledge and support only in the direction of privatization and market economy.
The conversion means privatization (public domain) to (private property), which is usually oriented with rapid and high profitability projects. The launch price in the market on the basis of free competition without any restrictions, paving the way in the end to the domination of monopoly of big companies and install themselves in the market and dispose of prices and quality of their own interests (profit maximization), and the acquisition of small and medium-sized companies and the expulsion of the market.
The market economy according to this ideology, this means the dimensions of the state of the market and non-interference in the regulation and control of economic activity, or reduce its role to the fullest extent possible, considering that the same market does so through supply and demand and free competition.
Within these data we can see, that the state of the Iraqi economy today need to move towards the application of the type of balanced economy in accordance with the diverse properties (government, cooperative, mixed), and / or even the voluntary sector, if it becomes part of Iraqi culture in the future, with the protection of the national production procedures The Iraqi invasion of foreign markets and the liberalization of prices Mountojat of any restrictions.
To achieve these tasks and others require the current government thinking seriously the process of economic and social reform, through the adoption of defined vision clear and transparent strategy for economic and social development, to ensure comprehensive and sustainable for the process of economic and social dimensions according to a number of trends, including, the following:
The economic dimension:
1 reform of the economic structure is based on a strategy of clear and transparent to activate the productive sectors, notably agriculture, industry, construction, buildings and service productivity, and other .otamen infrastructure and modern technology necessary, in order to rid the Iraqi economy from its structure unilateralism and reliance on oil revenues, so as to diversify its sources economic sectors to participate in the production of gross domestic product, and permanent insurance sources of the state budget financing.
2 activating the role of the national private sector and encouraged to contribute to the increase of investment and production and operation, through concessional financing for small and medium industries and in collaboration with the Chambers of Commerce and the Federation of Iraqi industries. Protection of industrial projects and exempted from taxes for a period ranging between (5-7) years, the demands of the private sector. A review of the law to encourage investment, and to provide the necessary facilities for this sector after her studies in order of priority and needs of the country and the circumstances of its development, and in cooperation with the Industrial Bank, to be the interest rate on loans for industrial projects a very low rate.
The private sector foreign must take advantage of it in a rational and thoughtful to invest in large-scale industries that require experience and skill Graham Walter is available to the national staff sectors, and with advanced and cutting-edge technology, and should be studied thoroughly from all financial, administrative, regulatory and legal aspects, according to the basis of common interests and the maintenance of national sovereignty .
3 attention to the rehabilitation and reconstruction of infrastructure building in the area and telephones and advanced Internet and television channels and means of information and technology and other telephony, security, labor, transport and communications, banking and insurance institutions, and building refineries and secure electric power, water projects, expanding and building highways networks and building Aljsurrabt districts and rural areas cities, in order to secure the transport of goods and passengers, services and Tenseet and other commercial traffic, which is a priority for building industrial and agricultural productivity and advanced services economy.
4 worsening through the restructuring of the industrial and agricultural sectors and services productivity to tackle unemployment.
And the need to build industrial parks developed and integrated infrastructure, restructuring of old industrial areas, and re-evaluate the economic and social viability of industrial projects self-financing, in order to qualify and be activated for production and re-working it, and not leave it as is the case so far.
5 to encourage construction sectors, which helps to solve the housing crisis, and protection of property speculation.
And the promotion of tourism projects and stimulate domestic and foreign private sector investment, production and operating them.
6 invest adequate resources in education in order to prepare the work force better educated and specialized, in order to contribute to raising the quality of education and raise productivity and production work.
7 provide data and statistics from the Ministry of Planning and competent bodies and put them available to researchers, academics and interested in economic and social affairs, with the establishment of specialized research centers in the economic, social and other fields.
8 On the fiscal side, monetary policy must be given to the use of scientific and logical standards in the preparation of the general budget tab, based on the measurement of the efficiency of performance and productivity, and financial resources available to rationally control, so that the budget estimates soon be a reality on the basis of goals real and programs.
9. financial and monetary system reform through the Central Bank of the only independent and specialized in formulating monetary policy, without interfering in his duties essential in securing monetary stability process, and maintain the reserve balance of foreign currency has, and other duties.
10 obliging the Ministry of Finance to apply "the law of financial management," which provides for the application of budget transparency towards the use of public funds in the field of sustainable national development in accordance with international standards followed, and provide the community with more data and information on the economic situation, the public and the state budget in order to see the priorities and details aspects Government spending and Massadralamala.
11 address the structural imbalance in the composition of the previous budgets, because of the large disparity in the percentage distribution of the budget between the operational expenses of public spending, which represents a rate of up to 70% public investment and spending up to 30% of the total budget. This situation caused the budget deficit for creating dynamic on the level of economic growth, for example (5 7%), which required a huge investment needs of the country in the field of reconstruction and rebuilding of the infrastructure, rehabilitation of the oil sector, for example, to 9 million barrels a day until 2020 , moderately priced oil, as well as the advancement of Balqtaqat productivity. To achieve this requires the distribution of the budget equally between the operating expenses and investment in the medium and long term.
12 reform and regulation of direct and indirect tax system, and especially her anatomy in order to achieve justice and the reduction of financial and administrative corruption rampant Ver.taufer necessary and efficient and fair means and collected in control of the process of law. Work on the dissemination of culture and tax awareness and mutual trust between the financial and administrative organs of the state and the citizens, that pay the tax, it is part of the contribution to the economic reconstruction process.
13 activating the role of the banks and insurance Establishments, after conducting structural, administrative and technical reforms where necessary. And tighten financial oversight, and private non-governmental, Bgith controlled using financial resources is irrational.
14 activating the role of the governing bodies of financial control, integrity and respect Astqlalthma in the performance of their duties, and to study their reports quarterly and annual seriously in Parliament. Accounting perpetrators of the crime of corruption in accordance with the law and the judiciary, with the revitalization of the role of civil society organizations in oversight and transparency to government institutions.
15 addressing the phenomenon of inflation, as the annual inflation indicators in the high Mstmrntejh rise in the index totals basic and essential goods, especially imported ones, through a relative increase in the incomes of employees, to cope with the occurrence of any rise in the rate of inflation.
16 accounting system reform so that live up to the global level measurement, through the consolidation of multiple accounting systems currently in place in the public and private sectors, and the development of financial control and quality methods, and raise the professional capabilities of workers in the fields of accounting, management, and use of new tools to address the function of the accounting system to produce information At the macro economic level (macroscopic) and micro (Almaekeroa).
17 apply modern financial system relying on information technology to produce the data necessary for the process to take economic and administrative decisions and financial information.
18-Barkan and guided by the principles of good governance based on the basis of: real democracy, transparency, integrity, responsibility and disclosure of information and the fight against financial and administrative corruption in the administrative and party joints.
19 necessity of activating and applying the principle of administrative and financial decentralization to the regions and provinces of Iraq.
20 need to adopt investment strategy is clear and transparent and effective mechanisms body according to studied plans for the process of economic development / social inclusive and sustainable.
Should check the overall national development and social Abaadaha Mrduha, except for the completion of the following tasks:
1 tackle unemployment by securing decent jobs for all, and the eradication of poverty and reduce class differences, by providing more opportunities to run the middle class to expand the size and reduce the size of the class and the poor below the poverty line.
2. Adoption of the all-inclusive economic and social policies to achieve the principle of economic and social justice, in order to reduce the great disparity in income levels and the accumulation of wealth among individuals and between regions of the country.
3 social responsibility towards the environment and protect it from pollution and destruction.
4 contribute to the labor market through the rehabilitation and training of manpower, to keep up with modern technology, in order to raise production and productivity and Jodthma.
5 to take care of production quality and provide better marketing services according to standards, consumer protection and favor. 6 social security insurance system to help the poor and the unemployed, and follow the effective means for the distribution of income among members of the community fairly as possible.
7 provide free health system for all citizens.
8 to provide free education at all levels for all people.
9 raise public awareness of the cultural and civilizational level of society, and activating the role of civil society organizations in the exercise of democracy and participation in decision-making and popular control.
10 to find quick and effective solutions to address Refugees and displaced persons through serious cooperation between the three presidencies, and as soon as possible. sustainable development: the economic and social dimensions referred to above shall, if taken out carefully and seriously according to the vision and strategy thought out on the basis of objectives, priorities and programs, the process of economic development Social which is at the heart of the priorities of the duties of the government, will undoubtedly concept of sustainability for the overall development, according to the following objectives: 1 Iraq's transition economy gradually yield economy unilaterally a consumer character to varied a recipe productive economy through structural economic reconstruction in favor of the productive sectors which economy producer of value-added, any contribute to the further accumulation of capital. 2 satisfy the urgent and growing citizens' needs through the adoption of productive economy policy, is alone capable of raising labor productivity, helping to raise living standards and provide goods and services to citizens. 3 to ensure continued growth Economic regular pace in the foreseeable future. 4 adjusted balance of payments trade a two-pronged movement of capital, through the reduction of open import the existing policy and exclusive products and various commodities required for production, investment and consumption of essential goods and intermediate inputs for industrial and agricultural production of the various sectors of. Reliance on national production of goods is available, protection and services through the activation and the restructuring of government institutions, building productivity. Encourage the private sector to contribute to productive investments, and activation code tariff number system (22) for the year 2010, as well as the thinking for the export of oil products petrochemicals, sulfur, fertilizer, etc., and some agricultural and animal products such as dates and grain wool, leather and other, which helps to adjust the balance of trade in favor of Iraq in term perspective. There is also the phenomenon of smuggling national capital any smuggling of foreign exchange of the country abroad, looking for a profitable and safe investment opportunities, because Iraq is repellent her because of AFS security situation and political stability, and not to stimulate and create a favorable environment for investment in the country, with a lack of vision and a clear strategy and transparent process for overall national development. This situation requires a strict control to reduce this phenomenon 0.5 adoption of the budget as a system of information in the formulation of operational strategies for public projects 0.6 improve the follow-up mechanisms of administrative, financial and operational performance of the projects budget. 7 strengthen the regulatory process through the implementation of regulatory standards and international auditing and evidence rules the moral behavior of professional accountants. 8 fight against financial and administrative corruption through cooperation between the FSA and the integrity and the elimination of popular control. 9 support and facilitate the application of uniform accounting policies process on all economic sectors. 10 to move from a cash basis to process applicable Governmental Accounting currently revenue and expenses to apply accrual basis. 11 unify methods of preparation of government reports and financial statements and disclosed periodically in accordance with international accounting standards. Third: Conclusions 1 that Iraq today is threatened in all areas and therefore it is against time to save the country benefits from great danger. And it requires adherence to the Constitution in processors, and despite of the contents of the negatives but it was not being adhered and / Owaltniv beside him positive. Study the reasons for the imbalance and a lack of overall vision and economic development paths / social sustainable. And the emphasis on the need to hold the path of the construction process in accordance with the regulations and laws of economic and knowledge. Use of Barkan good governance in facilitate the economy, administration and regulation, and also emphasized on the basis of competence and experience and professional standards in performance, and securing the rights and ensure human freedoms and autonomy in determining the methods of activity and areas of his life, and the practice of true democracy in everyday life. Take advantage of rationality Aatabieih and financial, human and knowledge resources available in the national development service, and not wasted as a result of AFS use and / Ootvha financial and administrative corruption at the administrative levels of the party and the state, as it is so far. The trend towards resolving the political problems between the participating parties in the political process, especially between the center and the Kurdistan region of Iraq, and the accumulated economic and foremost alleviate the suffering of the people and the provision of economic, political and health and education security and social peace, and the elimination of unemployment. Building a strong economy and prosperous achieved the principle of social justice and return proceeds and its bounty on the current and future generations and for the Iraqi people and factions, diverse in all its parts. Finally we have to say that it remains dependent on turning it into practical actions and concrete steps on the ground 0.2 that many different forms of the destruction that can be avoided stems from privatization and a market economy in the absence of social preparation and Altkniki enough. What happened and is happening in Eastern Europe and most of the underdeveloped and developing countries, including Iraq, is to hold a copy of the free-market capitalism (Madljh) strongly within the recipe (shock) therapy, it is no trial basis. Some of the information, reports, research and opinion polls in Central and Eastern Europe show, and the experience of welfare states such as, for example, the Scandinavian countries, but does not reflect the interest of a few pure forms of capitalism, but also the option to include social protection. The rampant corruption in the privatization and Alsoguenh policies, carried out under the existing rules, may create resistance requires either a comprehensive settlement or oppression?!. To achieve another alternative, a new type of social settlement contains a mix institutionally different from the classic European capitalism, and in harmony with economic rationality correctly, social, regulatory and legal environment of each country may appear
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