July 1, 2015 0:35
Long experience has proved to Iraq that its wealth has been a curse rather than a blessing on the Iraqis after the dictatorial regime end of 2003 realized everyone important to be constitutional provisions to regulate these resources especially oil and gas, such as what has been mentioned in Article 111 mode (oil and gas are owned by all the Iraqi people in the regions and the provinces).
And in Article (112): First: The federal government will administer oil and gas extracted from current fields with the governments of producing regions and provinces, on condition that the revenues will be distributed fairly compatible with the demographical distribution all over the country, with a quota for a specified period for affected regions, which It deprived in an unfair way by the former regime, which damaged after that, so as to ensure balanced development in different parts of the country, and is regulated by law.
Second: The federal government and the governments of producing regions and provinces together will draw up the necessary to develop oil and gas wealth of strategic policies, so as to achieve the highest benefit to the Iraqi people, relying on the most techniques of market principles and encouraging investment.
Iraqi constitution in Article 111 and 112 First and Second: does not grant ownership of the wealth of any entity - not the federal government nor the local governments, and leave some questions that have raised some of the problems and different interpretations between the federal government and the provincial government and producing provinces, for example:
What is meant by "with"? What is meant by "management"? Does it include the fields "current" both producing fields and discovered fields which have not yet begun production?
What is meant by "the highest benefit to the Iraqi people" - how they are measured? What is more important - to achieve the highest benefit or the adoption of market principles?
Iraq signed the Transparency Initiative in the extractive industries in 2010 and after the issuance of Iraq's first report for the year 2009 and the second report for the year 2010 and their access to representation in the Secretariat of the initiative is a big challenge about efforts to increase transparency and control over the proceeds of the extractive industries as the backbone of the economy and the process of development and welfare of the people Iraqi.
Initiative, in essence, the transition from wealth to development through various stages including:
Get a successful deal
Ensure the transparency of revenue
The disposition of the volatile and manage resources
Investments in sustainable development
Civil society in Iraq since the signing of Iraq work to establish a coalition spokesman (Alliance of the Extractive Industries Transparency Iraqi), a group of representatives of civil society organizations, unions, professional associations and media organizations and independent personalities in Iraq, for the purpose of the contribution as a true partner in the relevant stakeholders at the initiative of transparency in the extractive industries , civil society in Iraq is still looking forward to:
Stick to the Iraqi constitution and activate all its articles and that is not politicize the profiteers of the Iraqi people, and not to return to the wrong practices of the militarization of the state and continued to create crises instead of solutions.
That is working on the application of the essence of the initiative and how to think about the generations to come and to develop strategies and a tendency to Mezneat more goals in the forefront of the eight Millennium (Mottaga end poverty, and illiteracy...).
To issue a supplement to the Iraqi constitution, including oil law and agreed upon by all components of the Iraqi people and the right of access to information and activation of the national strategy to combat corruption in the Iraq Gas Act legislation.
Despite efforts in the field of development in the oil sector by the federal government and the Kurdistan Regional Government's efforts, but Iraq's economy until it becomes advanced and developed countries need to put in the development of the agricultural sector and the industrial and tourism strategies.
Alammerkzah expansion and with the contribution of the region and producing provinces to raise the level of production and half-marginalized groups of people.
That is expanded participation of civil society in the course of building the state of modern democracy in the planning, implementation and evaluation and like what came in the government of Mr. Abadi program under the initiative representation must be real stakeholders in the Council without government interference, and organizations to take notes the first report and second, that the report contains information on the flow of revenue to sub-national levels, figures and details about the costs of extractive companies, production, and information on the nature of the contracts.
In conclusion, it must be said that any development in Iraq to be difficult to achieve without political stability and security, and this does not come only by and balance and real partnership between the ruler and the ruled
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