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Supplies of economic reform in Iraq

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1 Supplies of economic reform in Iraq on Thu Jan 21, 2016 6:44 pm

emmaduke


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Supplies of economic reform in Iraq
Dr. Kamal Al-Basri and Professor harmful Sepahe, the Iraqi Institute for Economic Reform
Often countries are similar methodology based on economic CFA Reform that some of them and some Atovq
The Atovq in achieving Reform. Looking article benefiting from the experiences of East and South-East Asian Nations
The factors leading to the success of Reforms, and explain the importance of the development of political will in the planning and approval
A clear vision and strategy for Reform, and in the laws and procedures necessary legislation, and to ensure the rule of
The law is necessary to secure the rights of both citizens and businessmen of the risks and costs of corruption.
The durability and strength of Reform suit based on good governance, political will depends on efficiency together
National Post, and take responsibility for the results of decisions, and the adoption of transparency in the activities Jima
That closing in on the emerging on the rule of law practices. Accordingly, the coordinates
Reform can be shortened political management that rely vocabulary of good governance and the adoption of a package
Of supportive legislation, market economy, represented by the protection of property rights in a legal environment that ensures strength
Competitive economic.
1. elements of economic development?
Of the elements of economic development in general are heads provide the following funds: human,
Economic, social-political. Human capital means the availability of technical skills and culture
Supporting the development, economic and capital plant and equipment means) necessary financial Awalrshehad
Development (and social capital - a political social cohesion between the components of the people
Various supporting stability and approve the necessary laws and Aajerat thus contributing to pay tribute to state
Institutions that take into account the application of the vocabulary of good governance.
States vary in the provision of funds referred to heads and then vary in their ability to achieve
Development. Ras economic capital is no longer importantly Allen there are countries able to create incentives to attract
Heads economic funds in the form of foreign investment, but more importantly, namely: human capital
Technical and available competitive Bajaur, and social political capital that works to create an environment
Legislative and legal support to the work of institutional represented by a specific level of the rule of law as it is ...
The case in South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. Those countries have sought to focus on building
Human capacity and the rule of law and create an attractive environment for investments and played a leadership capacity
Political distinct role in achieving this.
Maehmna in this article is the head of the political and social capital and its impact on the organization structure
Sound policy and the impact on the performance of good economic institutions. Research has indicated
That the political systems which can achieve a bit ahead of the rule of law and the fight against corruption
On the other hand can enhance the strength of the economic institutions through the adoption and implementation of supporting legislation
For the good) as is the case in China, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Botswana and Rwanda (
Which in turn undermine businessmen and investors' confidence. The relationship between the level of performance of the institution
Political and economic organization is not a linear relationship as factors and variables play in influencing
Outstanding form, international practices that have proven to countries with solid democratic institutions
On the other hand have an economic institutions enjoys by virtue of Rashid, also found otherwise some countries
Enjoy the democratic systems have a rational economic institutions), especially in countries that depend
On the private sector in Altaatmah or countries that rely on export policy as is the case in
East and South-East Asian Nations (, also found that states have a wealth of nature such as oil creates Seen
Wealth in the distorted incentives and the factors influencing the direction of good governance) with the exception of some countries
Such as Norway (. For the purpose of clarifying the relationship between between good governance and economic performance to see graphic
Chart No. (1).
Chart 1
Stuck government performance and environment Doing Business
the source:
What determines the quality of economic institutions? Cross-country evidence,
Jonathan Lehne, Jeffrey Mo and Alexander Plekhanov, Working Paper No. 171
Prepared in October 2014, European Bank
2. stuck political factor economic factor?
Add to the above, I have found in the economic literature that there is a positive relationship between per capita
The GDP and the degree of the rule of law, which is another expression of the fact confirms the outstanding
Trdah power between political institutions) of the rule of law (and good performance of economic institutions
Global competitive force or the individual share of GDP See graph (2). As
There is conclusive evidence that the weakness of social cohesion role in undermining and weakening performance
Political and institutional, which would undermine the economic institutional work and therefore can not be
Reforms to achieve despite the citizen needed. Foregoing applies to the case of Iraq which testifies intersection
Sharply between representatives of the politicians of the components of the Iraqi people and that reflected on the failure to approve the oil law
And gas, despite the great importance of the legislation and the lack of infrastructure Act, which enabled the international companies sober
Building infrastructure, and not to apply the law of customs tariff and the inability to do a lot of
Reforms Perhaps the most prominent Reform the banking and corporate restructuring general economic, as
There are other examples in many African countries. From all of the above that the challenges facing countries in the
Thakaiq necessary Economic Reforms can not be isolated from the sovereignty of the political factor
Law, see the source (1)
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(1) AFRICA'S GROWTH TRAGEDY: Policies and Ethnic Divisions,: Source *
William Easterly and Ross Levine April 1997, Quarterly Economic Review
Chart 2 stuck rule of law and per capita gross domestic product
Global Competitiveness Measure from World Economic: Source
Forum 2009 - [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
3. the relationship between economic legislation and economic development?
Many studies have shown that support for the policy of economic freedom legislation that would create
Suitable for the work environment of the private sector role in achieving economic progress, and adopted those studies
To measure economic freedom through the use of 42 variables to build the index, which measures the degree
Economic freedom and represent these variables are categorized into five main fields are: size
Government in terms of spending, taxes and projects, the nature of the legal environment and preservation of property rights,
Access to money in a legitimate manner, freedom of foreign trade, the nature of the legislation
Relating to access to loans and the labor market and business. However, it was found that the degree of interdependence
Statistical variable between freedom and economic value of total production in the largest developed countries, including countries
Developing) in the sense that the marginal utility of production and realized from the increased value of the variable economic freedom
One degree is greater than those in developing countries (see the source (2)
(2) Modelling Economic Output and Economic Growth with
respect to Economic Freedom COMPARATIVE STUDY OF
DEVELOPING AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ERIK
JOHANSSON, ERIK TRETO
To find out the reasons for differences to influence the mechanism must look effect economic freedom laws on production
Year.
Doubt that the effect is sedate through the work of institutions / companies in terms of vocabulary Altazammha
Good governance or the rule of law. If we take the subject of protection of private property, the nature of the legislation
And the application depends on the level of development of the rule of law Da'mh political institutions. The rule of law
Within the work of institutions and companies have a positive impact in attracting of foreign investment and encourages
As far the largest local private sector growth, and the institutions that take into account the vocabulary of good governance
Be working relationships between staff and administrative device better than the other and then the seriousness exposure
The company's losses due to fewer work stoppages, Add to the above, the Almsttmereyn put confidence
The largest such company, and beyond the impact to financial institutions such as banks and insurance support for the work
Company ... etc) see chart 3 (.
the source
Corporate Governance
We know that it is not a lesson the necessary laws and legislation but the ability of social and political capital
To provide a solid environment for the work of institutions that operate the characteristics of good governance. The legislation provides
Men friendly to business in an environment that lacks the rule of law or good governance opens the door and a source of waste
Money and corruption and to the unfair practices. As another example of service contracts in the field of extraction Alnnaft
And that the federal government has worked in Iraq since 2009, and represents the value and feasibility of economic contracts
Greater than "participation contracts" However, the poor and weak political management which overcame preferring
"Quotas" on "efficiency" has made the management of those contracts to reap all the fruit.
Search suspended for the purpose of, or harmony between the rule of law and the quality of the prevailing laws and procedures have been
World Bank data for each adoption of the Arab countries, for example, through disclose graph
No. (4) found that there is a direct relationship between the quality of laws and procedures and the degree Tamusharah
The rule of law. This that calls to say that the states are ready and Mthaoh good and simplify
Procedures and laws whenever the degree of the rule of law better.
Figure (4) stuck the rule of law and the quality of laws for the Arab States
The Worldwide Governance, Indicators, 2014 Update-: Source
World Bank
Chart 4 shows that the UAE, Bahrain, Jordan was able to achieved the desired amount of
Reforms of the laws and procedures because of the progress the rule of law, on the contrary, Iraq and Libya
The Somalis have not achieved Reforms required because of the weakness of the rule of law and good governance. And the same
Conclusion can be reached when the inclusion of countries to year, Graph 5 shows the truth for
To some of the African Alt and Iraq.
Figure 5
We stuck the rule of law and the quality of the laws of Iraq and some African countries
The Worldwide Governance, Indicators, 2014 Update-: Source
World Bank
0.00
10 o'clock
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
90.00
Regulatory Quality Rule of Law
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
Regulatory Quality Rule of Law
4. The role of political will in the Economic Reform
The importance of political-social capital should not be understood as requiring the application of democracy
A political system, in which case a lot of the leading countries in the development have reached this through governments is
Democracy and she was so much seek to achieve a specific level of development before embarking on the process
Democracy. These countries option seems to stem from the desire to achieve corporate governance based on the process
Economic development as does in Japan, Korea, Singapore and Hoencock. The contrary, some have found
States that have adopted democracy in development was stalled growth) as an example in the Philippines
And Andenossia, Iraq and Naguirraa (. Democracy is that the T was constructed on the basis of good governance be
It confused and lead to chaos as is the case in Iraq. I have flooded the institution of democracy in Iraq
Political, economic, political participation) quotas (at the expense of the adoption of efficiency and transparency
And the rule of law, and that was the cause of the weakness of political will to take important read and widespread corruption.
Was Aahary be Lawal rely on the elements of good governance to achieve a certain amount of sophistication
Economic, and then the adoption of democracy and political participation) has also sought East Asian Nations (.
To illustrate the role of good governance based on the rule of law in achieving economic Reforms,
Take Iraq and Rwanda are both hunters who suffered from political troubles and social divisions. in a year
2008 was the level of complexity in the practice of economic business environment in both of the two evenly matched,
However, the terminal, fell out with Rwanda after 2014 to be a country with a better environment as is evident from
Graph) No. 6 (.
Figure 6 Comparison of Doing Business between Iraq and Rwanda Environment
The World Bank / Doing Business Survey 2014: Source
0
50
100
150
200
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
146 152 153
166 164 165
151 148 139
6758
4552
32
Doing Business
Iraq Rwanda
For the purpose of knowing the role of good governance and the rule of law which is based in the investigation referred to Reform
Above, compare the level of the rule of law in both countries during the period 2014- 2008,
Where it finds clear that the progress the rule of law was the largest of it to Iraq.
Figure 7 compared to the rule of law between Iraq and rhubarb
The Worldwide Governance, Indicators, 2014 Update: Source
It is not expected to state that Iraq Wi reap the benefits of Economic Reform without work to raise the level of
The rule of law. The economic and political deformation suffered by Iraq back to two factors
Oil use of financial resources and the application of democratic governance away of the adoption of standards
Transparency, efficiency and the rule of law. That this command requires the cooperation of citizens and community organizations
Civil in spreading the culture of "good governance" as an alternative to the "rule of the quota system", and the use of their voices
The electoral protest to pressure the adoption of good governance standards of the government, the desired contrast from
Government can set a specific vision for the common good and wanted to implement strong Reforms within the time schedule
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